Designed by: Gary Grossman
Java is a programming language originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since merged into Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities than either C or C++. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere” (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another.
Designed by: James Gosling and
sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses text files and implements a programming language which can apply textual transformations to such files. It reads input files line by line (sequentially), applying the operation which has been specified via the command line (or a sed script), and then outputs the line.
Designed by: Lee E. McMahon
AWK is a data driven programming language designed for processing text-based data, either in files or data streams. It is an example of a programming language that extensively uses the string datatype, associative arrays (that is, arrays indexed by key strings), and regular expressions.
Designed by: Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan
Tic-tac-toe, also spelled tick tack toe, or noughts and crosses as it is known in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, is a pencil-and-paper game for two players, O and X, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid, usually X going first. The player who succeeds in placing three respective marks in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal row wins the game.
The first known video game, OXO (or Noughts and Crosses, 1947) for the EDSAC computer played perfect games of tic-tac-toe against a human opponent.
Connect Four (also known as Four Up, Plot Four, Find Four, Four in a Row, and Four in a Line) is a two-player game in which the players first choose a color and then take turns dropping their colored discs from the top into a seven-column, six-row vertically-suspended grid. The pieces fall straight down, occupying the next available space within the column. The object of the game is to connect four of one’s own discs of the same color next to each other vertically, horizontally, or diagonally before one’s opponent can do so. There are many variations on the board size, the most commonly used being 7×6, followed by 8×7, 9×7, and 10×7.
The game was first sold under the famous Connect Four trademark by Milton Bradley in February 1974.
You’ll find a guide here.
Snake is a video game first released during the mid 1970s in arcades and has maintained popularity since then, becoming something of a classic. After it became the standard pre-loaded game on Nokia phones in 1998, Snake found a massive audience.
Tetris is a puzzle video game originally designed and programmed by Alexey Pajitnov in the Soviet Union. It was released on June 6, 1984, while he was working for the Dorodnicyn Computing Centre of the Academy of Science of the USSR in Moscow. He derived its name from the Greek numerical prefix tetra- (all of the game’s pieces, known as Tetrominoes, contain four segments) and tennis, Pajitnov’s favorite sport.
The Tetris game is a popular use of tetrominoes, the four element special case of polyominoes. Polyominoes have been used in popular puzzles since at least 1907, and the name is given by the mathematician Solomon W. Golomb in 1953. However, even the enumeration of pentominoes is dated to antiquity.
Arkanoid is an arcade game developed by Taito in 1986. It is based upon Atari’s Breakout games of the 1970s. The title refers to a doomed “mothership” from which the Vaus, the player’s ship, escapes.
Asteroids is a video arcade game released in 1979 by Atari Inc. It was one of the most popular and influential games of the Golden Age of Arcade Games. Asteroids uses a vector display and a two-dimensional view that wraps around in both screen axes (a toroidal topology).